NAD+, NMN, and NR are almost completely digested to NAM in the stomach and liver. There is recent research that shows some NMN can utilize the SLC12a8 pathway to enter cells directly in the intestines. Another new study found NMN is digested by bacteria in the stomach and creates NAD+ through a totally independent pathway. However, it is not known if either of those alternate pathways are significant for therapeutical purposes.
Sublingual delivery can be effective at bypassing the digestive tract to deliver ingredients directly to the bloodstream, but is limited to 20-30%.
Liposomes can protect ingredients from digestion can carry 90% of the ingredient safely to the bloodstream
STABILITY IN BLOODSTREAM
To reach beyond the liver, delivering NR in liposomes that protect it from degradation in the bloodstream is the solution.
NMN is more stable than NR and remains available in the bloodstream for many hours (source, source) but not as stable as NAD+. NMN research in mice have shown very impressive benefits for endurance and new blood vessel growth. (source)
NAD+ is very stable in the bloodstream. Some studies in mice show it is able to cross the blood brain barrier, while NMN and NR cannot (source), and may have more benefit on neurological issues.
ENTRY TO CELLS
A second study has now confirmed earlier work that the Slc12a8 enzyme does in fact transport NMN across the Although NMN and NAD+ must be converted to NR to cross the membrane on some cell types, the CD73 enzyme present on the membrane does this efficiently and is increased when needed to bring more NMN and NAD+ into the cells. (source)
Very large dosages injected by IV in humans are well tolerated and is so quickly metabolized by cells there is no increase in extracellular NAD+ levels in plasma for 2 hours.After 2 hours, an increase of 4x and 5x was found in plasma NAD+ and NMN. (source,).
Some studies show NAD+ may be more effective at reaching the brain as it crosses the blood brain barrier, while NMN and NR do not.(source)
In mice, replenishment of NAD+ levels have shown neuroprotective effects in prion diseases, as well as frontotemporal dementia (source).
NAD+ may have more effect on the brain than NMN and NR.
Our NMN powder provides the most mg NMN per dollar of any NMN product on the market, and provides an immediate boost that most users notice. However, the 70% or more that is not absorbed sublingually is subject to digestion.
We learned in 2020 that when swallowed, NMN is almost totally digested by bacteria in the stomach (source),
Hence the need for Liposomal delivery that can protect 100% of NMN, NR and NAD+ through the digestive system.Our LSG NMN shown here is one such product.
Top quality Nanosized Liposomal NMN is expensive to produce, so does cost quite a bit more than other products.However, published research on other Liposomal products and our internal testing indicate our LSG NMN delivers around 3x more NMN to the bloodstream than our Sublingual products, making them a much better value.
In addition, it is unstable in the bloodstream and only found briefly and at trace levels after supplementation (source). When given to human at 1,000 mg per day for 3 weeks, NR levels in the blood were not increased at all and still barely detectable (source).
However, NR has shown benefits for Fatty Liver Disease (source) in humans and may be more effective than other options for Liver function.
The solution is LIPO NR, the only truly bioavailable Nicotinamide Riboside.
This creates a very stable powder that protects the NR through the stomach, liver, and in the bloodstream where it is able to reach tissues throughout the body without being degraded by enzymes.
NMN, NR, and NAD+all have similar effects in many situations, but also have some differences in stability, uptake, and affinity for different tissues. Unfortunately, there have been few direct comparisons in research.
There is some research that shows NAD+ may cross the blood brain barrier, while NMN and NR do not (source). There is also research showing impressive results for endurance and blood vessel growth in muscle with NMN which have not yet been duplicated for NR or NAD (source).
While it is possible researchers will find one is “better” than the others overall,it is most likely that all are beneficial in different situations.As a result, we have developed a product that contains all three. Our NAD+ COMPLETE Capsules contain NMN, NR, and NAD+ in liposomes freeze-dried to a very stable powder.This protects the ingredients through the digestive system and in the bloodstream.