This research was published in January 2019 that found an enzyme named Slc12a8 that can transport a small quantity of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) directly into some cells.
However, this enzyme is only prevalent in the small intestine of older, sicker animals and humans.
The Slc12a8 enzyme was just discovered because it plays a very minor role, and does not transport a large enough quantity of NMN to have been noticed earlier. More about Slc12a8 below.
Providing NAD+ or its immediate precursor, NMN, directly to the bloodstream may be much more effective than dropping large quantities of NAM or NR into the liver and trying to force it to produce more NMN and NAD to the bloodstream.
There is research now being conducted to quantify how much NMN and NAD+ are absorbed by sublingual delivery in humans, but none have yet been published.
Only A Small Quantity of NMN Capsules can sometimes bypass the liver
It has long been noticed that a small quantity of NMN can reach the bloodstream in minutes. The answer on how this happens was revealed in a study published Jan 2019 that shows the newly identified Slc12a8 protein can transport NMN to NAD+ in the small intestine, avoiding digestion to NAM.
It does not seem to be a significant amount
The study does not publish results showing HOW MUCH NMN the Slc12a8 enzyme can transport, but all previous studies such as the Liu research could not find evidence of any NAD+ at all that was created through this pathway.
According to the authors:
It is important to note that the discovery of an NMN transporter by no means diminishes the importance of uptake via dephosphorylation
It must also be noted that Slc12a8 transporter is most prominent in the small intestine, but does not have a pathway to the rest of the body.
There is hope Slc12a8 can be useful in future products
Future products may soon hit the market that target this pathway to help solve the bioavailability problem of NMN capsules. According to the study:
“Dr Imai’s lab already has identified small molecules that can stimulate production of the Slc12a8 NMN transporter, applied for patents, and licensed this technology to a company in Japan”
New Research shows that bacteria in stomach digest NMN
The yellow and red bars show NMN and NAD+ in the GIT are many times higher in mice given antibiotics (ABX) or NMN + Antibiotics (NMN + ABX).
This explains why regular NMN capsules perform so poorly compared to Sublingual delivery of NMN, that can bypass the stomach and liver, to delivery NMN directly to the bloodstream.
New product to avoid digestion by bacteria and maximize uptake by SLC12a8
For maximum uptake via the SLC12a8 transporter
- Delayed Release Capsules – Protects NMN from digestion by bacteria
- Sodium Bicarbonate – Maximize absorption
- TMG – Methyl Replacement
- Zinc – Increased Immunity
You may also minimize the quantity of NAD+ or NMN that is digested by bacteria in the stomach and filtered out by the liver by taking it sublingually